Unrig: How to fix our broken democracy by Daniel G. Newman

Having been raised in a mostly-white mostly-middle-class part of a purple state, I understood that the United States is a government for, by, and of the people. But for the last ten years or so that hasn’t felt like it was particularly true anymore… and it wasn’t just because of the presidential election or the current unrest. Nobody seemed to be able to tell me why, though, and the few that tried fell into traps of Democrat and Republican stereotype talking points and attacks on the other party.

Which didn’t make sense, really, because I know Democrats and Republicans and while everyone has points they differ on, we’re really not as far apart (on the whole) at the grass roots level as we believe. Heck, I was raised Republican, and the Republican party of today is definitely not espousing the same values as the one that existed when I was in high school.

So what the heck’s been happening? Why can’t we get along? Who the hell are the Koch Brothers and why do I care? How is Betsy DeVos in charge of education and why does it look like she’s purposely destroying public schools? Why are the elections swinging directions that we don’t expect, or don’t want?

When Scott McCloud mentioned Unrig: How to Fix Our Broken Democracy on Twitter I decided to give it a shot, and it’s done a very good job of describing the forces that are pressuring both our elected officials and the elections themselves.

Daniel Newman puts forth a case (with a sizable bibliography) that the ultra-rich in the US banded together and started playing a long game years ago with the intent to take control of the democracy out of the hands of common citizens like you and me. Dark money influences both elections and the elected. It changes how our electoral maps are drawn. It prevents fair elections. It increases the financial effects of corporate lobbyists to get what they want.

It’s a freaking mess.

But this book isn’t just an explainer for what’s happened over the last 20-50 years. It’s also an explanation for what we, the people, can actually do about it. It explains ranked choice voting, clean elections, the Voting Rights Act, gerrymandering, and many other political tools that we can use to make our democracy more or less fair, and then what we can do to wield those tools.

And look, if you’ve fully bought into the narrative that the government should be small and helpless and distrusted, or that people shouldn’t help each other or work together for better lives because it’s a dog-eat-dog world, you’re probably not going to be a big fan. This book assumes that neighbors help neighbors, we all want better lives, and we can work together to get them. It doesn’t ascribe to any specific ideology although it does make it clear that most of the dark money from the ultra-rich is going into the Republican party with the specific intent to undermine democracy.

This book is for disillusioned Republicans, frustrated Independents, confused Democrats, and everyone else who’s looking for an explanation of our current political and democratic situation in clear terms, with a compelling and precise visual and textual story. It’s for everyone that needs a graphic novel (graphic textbook?) refresher in that civics class you might not have had in five, ten, twenty, or thirty years. It’s for people thinking of getting into politics now, people thinking of getting into politics later, and people who are just sick of attack ads on television and always having the worst choices at the election box.

The book has an accompanying website for bringing people who want to unrig our democracy together. And it’s time.

Amazons, Abolitionists, and Activists: A Graphic History of Women’s Fight for their Rights

If you’re looking for a graphic history (aka “comic book style”) book that explains the fight for women’s rights, Amazons, Abolitionists, and Activists by Mikki Kendall and illustrated by A D’Amico, is the book. 

The plot entails a class of young women, who disagree with what the women’s movement is, receiving a tour through history from a purple artificial intelligence. 

They cover historical figures from multiple countries, as well as an outline of different systems of rights in different places and times. 

They cover suffrage, equal rights, and how women’s rights movements intersect with minority rights, the labor movement, white supremacy, child labor laws, eugenics, misogyny, the civil rights movement, LGTBQIA rights movements, and many other important points in history. 

I think Fredrick Douglass might be the only man mentioned by name. 

They also cover historical activist figures you may not hear about elsewhere — especially Black, Native American, and Indian folks. I learned more names in this book than I did in 12 years of education. (Admittedly, that education was in the 80s and 90s. Hopefully we’ve come a ways since.)

Because it’s a survey more than a textbook, most of what you get is a name and maybe two paragraphs about a person or an event. It’s enough to pique interest and send the reader back to the library. (It’s also probably a good “pick one person from the book to do a report on” resource for teachers.)

I see this book making a place for itself on bookshelves for historians young and old, women who want to know they’re not fighting alone, and the home of anyone who wants to better understand how women fit into the history of the human race.

The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben

If you’re a botanist, The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben is probably going to simplify things in irritating ways. It may anthropomorphize trees more than you’re comfortable with. It refers to trees “thinking”, which some botanists are going to agree with and others are going to be uncomfortable with because the term “thinking” makes it to easy for our primate brains to think that the experience of being a tree is closer to the experience of being a primate than it actually is. If you are determined to see faults in the writing here, as with all science writing, you’re going to find them.

On the other hand, if you’re the non-biologist who thinks trees are things that grow in the yard and fall on the house, well, this book is likely to very much change your view on trees. It certainly changed my view of trees, forests, sustainability, trees’ impacts on climate change, and a whole bunch of other misconceptions that I had.

Trees are social plants. They communicate. They protect and feed their young. Their lives are long, but also fragile. They get thirsty, they get hungry, they get sleep deprivation. (Now I know why my potted trees always died!) They rely deeply on the microorganisms that live in good soil, and they can’t just be dumped anyplace and expected to grow. They’ll rebuild both the soil and the air if given the opportunity, but they do both of those tasks best when they’re allowed to live in communities of their own creation.

This book made me want to live a thousand years so I’d have the opportunity to buy a plot of land and start a forest. It made me want to go outside and apologize to the ash tree I’ve been pruning violently for years. It made me want to plant more trees, walk in the forest, and think about life from a non-mammal point of view, however narrow and inaccurate my perception of that point of view might be.

The Demon in the Freezer by Richard Preston

TLDR: read this book with caution, as it’s a fascinating story and simultaneously rife with content later found to be in dispute.

The Demon in the Freezer by Richard Preston is an easy book to read and a hard book to resolve.

If what you’re looking for is a book that gives you a history of smallpox, how we eradicated it, and what’s happened since, this is a great primer of the science that can’t be taken at face value for the historical accuracy.

Preston takes us through two stories: the “Amerithrax” anthrax attacks against the United States in 2001, and the ongoing story of the eradication and probable weaponization of smallpox beginning in the 1960s. There are many obvious challenges to telling these two stories: first, that when the book was written in 2002, the Amerithrax case was still open, second, that much of the information involved in the stories is classified, and third, that writing about science such the the layman can understand viruses is a hell of a challenge.

The third, Preston nails. The book has view diagrams, but the ones provided are profoundly effective. His use of language to paint setting and explore human characters is equally effective discussing the shape and behavior of anthrax and smallpox.

The first, Preston couldn’t have ended effectively. The book was published in 2002, but the case was not closed until 2009 (according to Wikipedia’s article on the subject and even then, Wikipedia notes, some folks question whether the true perpetrator was found. Some of the content of the book itself has been refuted or discovered to be wrong since its publication, which is also one of the risks of writing about current history. Preston states, what was believed to be known at the time, that the anthrax in the attacks had been weaponized. Since then, that believe has been overturned, and the anthrax is now believed to be “just” a mix of anthrax purified to different extents. Stephen Hatfill, who at the time of the writing was a person of interest in the case, has been fully exonerated. Obviously, it’s extremely difficult to resolve an open investigation in such a way that the book is satisfying.

Finally, there’s the question of whether Preston himself was able to get the full story, for which the obvious answer is “of course not”. Multiple American and world government agencies, scientists, and organizations were all involved not only in the anthrax case but also in the handling of smallpox — the actual story that the book puts forward.

Preston interviews and quotes many people from around the world in his storytelling, which results in a rich and fascinating look at killer poxviruses, how they work, and how grateful we should be that they are contained. He goes into stark but not sensationalist detail about what smallpox does to the human body, its various forms, how the virus looks and behaves, and how the Eradication Team defeated it. He outlines challenges in “bringing it back to life” so that an antiviral could be created. (Wikipedia’s smallpox articlereports that in 2018 an antiviral treatment was approved by the FDA, indicating that the US Government’s goals may have been at least partially reached.)

Preston also covered much of the history of the virus in detail, including its use as biological warfare during the French and Indian War. He described extensive evidence of Russian biological weaponry as well as interviews with Russian defectors who produced weaponized smallpox during the late 20th century. He speculates and infers heavily that the Russian supplies of smallpox could easily be in the hands of American enemies such as Iraq and Iran, as well as any of a number of other “bad actors”. He also goes into details of a research project in Australia that turned mousepox into a “superbug” and how a similar genetic experiment on smallpox could make it even more deadly than it already is. In some cases, the people involved in biological warfare are painted in a negative light (as well they should be) accused of prevarication and avoidance of WHO inspectors.

However, Americans throughout the book are never cast in this same light. The book states that all biological warfare research in the US was ended prior to the eradication of smallpox in the late 1970s and that while Preston makes it clear he believes the Russians did engineer smallpox as a weapon, he never even suggests that US has considered it.

As a close friend said to me, “If the Russians were doing it, you can bet we were doing it, and we probably both still are.”

I don’t expect an author working closely with US government sources to produce such a book would write anything that would jeopardize his sources without good reason, and in the early 2000s doing so in the US (in the height of significant nationalism resulting from the 9/11 attacks) would have gone over like a lead balloon anyway. “Know your audience” is a key point in publication. But I caution other readers to remember these motives in the writing. The Amerithrax attack was eventually (at least in the FBI’s view) traced back to an American scientist who had access to anthrax and lab equipment and knowledge. There is no reason to believe that American scientists have never created smallpox bioweapons, nor a reason to believe that they could not still, outside of the CDC’s official position that smallpox is only available in a firmly secured freezer in an undisclosed location.

It’s 2019, and smallpox remains eradicated from nature. Measles is on the rise thanks to a different kind of bioterrorism — deliberate misinformation about vaccines. White nationalism is on the rise and the vast majority of terror attacks on US soil since 2001 have been by radical white extremists. ICE and the DHS are imprisoning minority immigrants and asylum seekers in near-concentration-camp conditions. It seems objectively likely based on the contents of Preston’s book that the right American scientists with the right twisted motives in the right place and the right time could find himself in possession of some smallpox — domestic or purchased internationally — and free the demon from the freezer. It could, I dare to say, even be our own government experimenting on the asylum seekers we have always welcomed.

One hopes that when the next pandemic occurs, whether it’s in the US or somewhere else, we are able to use the knowledge from scientists such as D. A. Henderson and Peter Jahrling, to rapidly contain and re-eradicate the threat.

The Ends of the World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, and Our Quest to Understand Earth’s Past Mass Extinctions by Peter Brannen

I wasn’t one of those kids that was enamored with dinosaurs, and we didn’t really explain that birds were dinosaurs until I was well outside the age where my clothing shopping took place in the kid’s section. I became interested in dinosaurs and their extinction because I was one of those kids who was fascinated by plate tectonics and geology, and the plate tectonics and geology kept bouncing against the paleontology and, well,  eventually one takes a hint.

Thus I’ve found myself becoming interested in dinosaurs somewhat unexpectedly. I watch PBS Eons and read things about how chickens are actually dinosaurs.

And on the other side of the science debates, I numbly agree that yeah, humans are causing climate change, but do we know what could actually happen? Do we have any models?

Turns out we do. Not the models we would have chosen, but definitely actual research-driven mind-adjusting models. They’re called the mass extinctions.

The Ends of the World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, and Our Quest to Understand Earth’s Past Mass Extinctions by Peter Brannen scratches the geology itch, the plate tectonics itch, the biology itch, the paleontology itch, even a touch of anthropology near the end when the humans show up. It skips all those long “boring” stretches when everyone’s living just fine between the ends of their worlds. It puts significant attention on those times when multiple things, like a perfect storm, go horribly wrong. We don’t just learn about the mass extinctions. We learn about the places on our own roadsides where we can see the evidence of those extinctions – juts of ground that were the bottom of seabeds, cliffs that were volcanos, rocks that were animals.

This is the most in-depth look at what rises and falls in CO2 levels actually do to the Earth – its oceans, its land masses, and its atmospheres – that I’ve found anywhere I’ve looked. It’s the first time I’ve gotten an explanation of how the planet does its best to self-regulate its temperature (and it turns out to have a lot to do with dissolving the mountains) and the first time I’ve gotten a good idea of the time frames involved (really really *really* really long).

So will there be another mass extinction? Eventually, and it will probably involve CO2 levels. Whether that’s soon enough for our society to remember it, or far enough out that we’ve moved off-planet remains to be determined by our own behavior over the next 100 years.

In the meantime, this very readable, very relatable book will help you see far in the past and possibly imagine far in the future.